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舞台机械究竟该如何安全使用?

 舞台安全直接关系着剧场演出和管理的成败。舞台安全涉及演职人员安全、布景安全、装置安全、道具安全、用电安全、消防安全等诸多方面,本文仅涉及与舞台机械相关的安全内容,按照起因分类,可概括为“硬件”和“软件”两种。硬件,主要是指设备设施因素;软件,主要包括演出程序编制、专业人员自身素质。以下主要从“硬件”、“软件”和“人”三个方面进行分析。

1“硬件”因素对舞台安全的影响

WUTAIJIXIESHEBEIZISHEJI、ANZHUANG、DIAOSHI、SHIYONGZHIHOU,GEZHONGSHEBEICANSHUHEYUNXINGTEDIANJIUJIBENWEICHIZAIYIGEXIANGDUIWENDINGDEZHUANGTAI。DAN“BUBIAN”DESHEBEI,YUDAOBUTONGTEDIANDEJUMUHOU,GEJUTESEDEYANCHUSHIYONGYAOQIUJIUJISHEBEIYUNXINGDEZHUANGTAI、YOUKENENGCHANSHENGDEANQUANYINHUANDAILAILE“DUOBIAN”DEYINSU。

1.1设备及其布景间相互剐蹭带来的影响

ZAIBUJINGDIAOGUAANZHUANG、CHAIXIEGUOCHENGZHONG,DIAOGANBUKEBIMIANDIFASHENGHUANGDONG,HUIZAOCHENGDIAOGANYUDIAOGAN、DIAOGANYUDENGGUANGQIAODENGZHOUBIANSHEBEIJIANDEGUACENGHUOPENGZHUANG。YOUYUGEJUYUANDEDIAOGANZUIBIANSHANGDEGANGSISHENGYUDIAOGANDUANJULIHENXIAO,DIAOGUAFASHENGHUANGDONGSHI,DIAOGANJIYICHARUFUJINDIAOGANDEGANGSISHENGLIHUOGUAZAIDENGGUANGQIAODEFUSHOUSHANG。RUFASHENGSHANGSHUWENTI,ERXIANCHANGGONGZUORENYUANJIANCHABUDAOWEIBINGYUNXINGDIAOGANHUODENGGUANGQIAOSHI,HUIDAILAIANQUANSHIGU,QINGZESUNHUAIDIAOGANGANGSISHENG,ZHONGZEDAOZHIDIAOGANHUODIAOGANSHANGDEBUJINGZHUILUO。

因此,现场工作人员要观察仔细,确保吊杆与吊杆之间、吊杆与灯光桥之间不发生干涉,并确保布景吊挂、吊杆运行、灯光桥运行的安全。

1.2相互关联设备的运动速度差带来的影响

广东麻将ZAIYANCHUZHONG,JINGCHANGHUISHEJIDAOTAISHANGSHEBEIHETAIXIASHEBEIPEIHESHIYONGDEQINGKUANG,RUTAISHANGDIAOGANDIAOGUAYINGJINGXUJIECHUTAIXIAZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAI。WEIPEIHEYANCHUXUYAODIAOGANHEZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAITONGSHISHANGSHENGHETONGSHIXIAJIANG,LIANGZHEXIANGHUPEIHE,TONGCHANGLIANGZHEDESUDUSHEWEIYIZHI。DANXUYAOZHUYI,LIANGZHEDEJIASUDUPIPEIWENTI:ZAITONGSHISHANGSHENGSHI,DIAOGANDEJIASUDUYINGDAYUZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAIDEJIASUDU,LAIBAOZHENGDIAOGANDESUDUDAYUZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAIDESUDU;ZAITONGSHIXIAJIANGSHI,DIAOGANDEJIASUDUYINGXIAOYUZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAIDEJIASUDU,LAIBAOZHENGZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAIDESUDUDAYUDIAOGANDESUDU。ZHEIYANGDIAOGANDIAOGUADEYINGJINGYUZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAIBUHUIFASHENGPENGZHUANG,FOUZEHUIDAOZHIYINGJINGPIANWANQU、BIANXINGDENGSUNHUAI,YINGXIANGYANCHUHUOBUJINGQIEHUAN。

1.3设备间相互关联带来的影响

ZAISHIYONGWUTAIJIXIESHEBEISHI,YINGKAOLVSHEBEIDEXIANGYINGSHIJIAN,YOUQISHITAIXIADEWUTAIJIXIE,XIANGHUGUANLIANDEGEZHONGSUODINGZHUANGZHIDUO。ZAIYANCHUZHONGWEIQUEBAOWUTAIANQUAN,TAIXIASHEBEIRUZHUWUTAISHENGJIANGTAI、CHETAI、CHEZAIZHUANTAIDENGZAIJINGZHIZHUANGTAIXIADOUSHISUODINGZHUANGTAI,SHEBEIYUNDONGQIANXUYAOJIESUO。RUGUOZAIBIANZHICUESHIBUKAOLVSHEBEIJIESUOSHIJIAN,ZAIHOUYIGECUEYUNXINGSHEJISHANGYIGECUEZHONGDESHEBEISUOSHI,HENRONGYIZAOCHENGSHEBEIHULIANSUOBAOJING,DAOZHISHEBEIBUNENGYUNXING,YINGXIANGYANCHUSHUNLIJINXING。

LINGWAI,HAIYAOKAOLVXIANGYINGGUOCHENGDEQINGKUANG,TONGYISHEBEIZAIQIANHOUBUTONGCUEZHONG,ZAIYUNXINGHOUYIGECUESHIYAOQUEBAOQIANYIGECUEZHONGDECISHEBEIYIJINGYUNXINGWANBI,FOUZECHUXIANSHEBEIBEIZHANYONGBAOJING,WUFAWANCHENGSHEBEIYUNXING,TONGYANGYINGXIANGYANCHU。

1.4编组内设备属性的差异性带来的影响

ZAIYANCHUZHONGJINGCHANGSHIYONGBUTONGDESHEBEIJINXINGTONGBUBIANZU,RUDENGGUANGQIAOYUDIAOGAN、DIAOGANYUGUIDAODANDIANDIAO,BUTONGSHEBEIDESHEBEIXINGNENGSHIBUYIYANGDE:DENGGUANGQIAODESUDUSHI0.1 m/s,SHIDINGSUSHEBEI;DIAOGANDEMORENSUDUSHI0.3 m/s,SHIBIANPINDIAOSUSHEBEI;GUIDAODANDIANDIAODEMORENSUDUSHI0.4 m/s,SHIBIANPINDIAOSUSHEBEI。ZAIJINXINGTONGBUBIANZUHOU,JISHITONGYANGSUDUYUNXINGYEYINGKAOLVBUTONGSHEBEIYUNXINGSHIDEJIAJIANSUSHIBUTONGDE,ZAIBIANZUYUNXINGSHIDOUHUICHANSHENGYIDINGDEGAODUCHA,ZAISHIYONGSHIBIXUSHIDEDUOCIYUNXINGHOUDEJILEIWUCHAZAIKECHENGSHOUFANWEINEI,FOUZEYEHUIZAOCHENGBIANZUNEIDEBUJINGHUOSHEBEISUNHUAI。

广东麻将LINGWAI,HAIYAOZHUYIBIANZUSHEBEIDESHULIANG,YISHIYAOKAOLVKONGZHIXITONGDUITONGSHIYUNDONGSHEBEIDEKONGZHINENGLI,ERSHIYAOKAOLVBIANZUSHEBEISHULIANGZENGDUOSHIHUIZENGJIASHEBEICHUXIANGUZHANGDEGAILV,XITONGDEKEKAOXINGJIANGDI。

2“软件”因素对舞台安全的影响

广东麻将WEILEMANZURIXINYUEYIDEWUTAIXIAOGUO、JUYOUZHENHANCHONGJIDEGUANZHONGSHIJUEXIANGSHOU,JUMUFUZACHENGDUBUDUANJIASHEN、DAOJUBUJINGTILIANGBUDUANJIADA、WUTAISHEBEIYUNXINGSHULIANGBUDUANZENGDUO,YINCI,SHIXIANSHANGSHUXUQIUDEZONGZHIHUI——“SHEBEIDONGZUOCHENGXU”(JICUE),YESHUIZHANGCHUANGAO,YUELAIYUEFUZA。YUCITONGSHI,YINSHIJIANJINZAOCHENGDESUCHENGSHI、SHAOGUIFAN、QIANKEXUEDEBIANCHENG,YETONGGUOYIGEGE“YOUJINGWUXIAN”DEANQUANSHISHIBUDUANQIAOXIANGJINGZHONG:WUTAIJIXIEBIANCHENGGUIFANCHENGDUZHIJIEYINGXIANGYANCHUANQUANHEJUMUXIAOGUO,BIXUQUANMIANJIAYIGUIFAN,QIESHIZUODAO“YOUFAKEYI,YOUFABIYI”。

2.1CUE号和ACT使用的唯一性

广东麻将YOUYUYIGEYANCHUXIANGMUCONGZHUANGTAI、JISHUHECHENG、PAILIANDAOZUIHOUYANCHU,WUTAIDONGZUOKENENGLIJINGDUOCIXIUGAI,YINCIWEIWUTAIQIEHUANBUJINGBIANZHIDECUEHUISUIZHIJINXINGDUOCIXIUGAI。ERCUEHAOXUJINLIANGZUODAO“RENBIANHAOBUBIAN”,JIWEILEDUJUEYOUYURENYUANJIAOJIEBANDEBIANHUANDENGRENWEIYINSUSUODAILAIDEYINGXIANG,ZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGXUYAOQUEBAOCUEHAOSHIYONGDEWEIYIXING,CUEZHONGDESUOYOUDONGZUO(ACT)SHIYONGDEWEIYIXING。YEJIUSHISHUO,DANGCUEZHONGSUOYOUDONGZUODIAOZHENGDAOQITACUEZHONGSHI,CICUEHAOYINGGAIFEICHU;CUEZHONGDEDONGZUOACTFASHENGDIAOZHENGSHI,YAOQUEBAOCIACTWEIYISHIYONG,FOUZECIACTYAOFEICHU。ZAISHEJITAISHANG、TAIXIADONGZUOSHIXUTEBIEZHUYI,YANCHUZHONGYIGESHEBEIXUYAOYUNXINGDUOCI,YINGGAIDUIMEICIDEYUNXINGDONGZUOJIANLIDANDUDEACT。DUISHEBEIYUNDONGCANSHU(BAOKUOWEIZHI、SUDU、JIASUDU、JIANSUDU、BIAOJIWEIDENG)JINXINGDIAOZHENGSHI,YINGZHENDUIXIANGYINGDEDONGZUOJINXINGDIAOZHENG,JIYAOZUODAOACTYUCUEDE“WEIYIDUIYING”SHUXING。

2.2台上、台下运行程序的分离

ZAIYANCHUZHONG,TAISHANG、TAIXIAWUTAIJIXIESHEBEIJINGCHANGXUYAOTONGSHIYUNDONG,CISHIYINGJIANLILIANGGEDULIDECUE,YIBANBULIANJIEZAIYIQIHUOHEBINGZAIYIGECUEZHONG,FOUZE,JIBULIYUCAOZUORENYUANZAISHEBEIYUNXINGQUANCHENGJINXINGJIANCHA,YOUZENGJIACAOZUORENYUANHEXIANCHANGRENYUANZAISHEBEICHUXIANYICHANGZHUANGKUANGSHICHULIDENANDU。GONGZUORENYUAN(YOUQISHIXIANCHANGGONGZUORENYUAN)SHAOYOUBUSHENCHUXIANWUTAIJIXIEKOULINGCUOWUHUODUIXIANCHANGZHUANGKUANGZHANGWOBUQING,JUYOUTAISHANG、TAIXIASHEBEIYUNXINGROUZADECUE,HENKENENGYOUYUCUOWUDEWUTAIJIXIEYUNXINGDAILAIERCIANQUANSHIGU。

2.3CUE表、杆表的属性一致性

ZAIXIANCHANGGONGZUORENYUANSHIYONGDEZHIZHICUEBIAOHEGANBIAOZHONG,DIAOGANGANHAOHEBUJINGMINGCHENGYINGBIAOMINGYIZHI,BIANYUXIANCHANGGONGZUORENYUANSUISHIJIANCHAHEQUEREN;ZAISHEJIDUOSHEBEIBIANZUSHI,BIANZUSHEBEIJIQICHENGZAIDEBUJINGMINGCHENGTONGYANGXUYAOZAICUEBIAOHEGANBIAOZHONGQINGCHUBIAOMING。DUIYUBIANZU,XIANCHANGRENYUANSHIYONGDEZHIZHICUEBIAOZHONGBIXUXIANGXIBIAOSHICHUSHEBEIBIANHAO,YIBIANYUXIANCHANGGONGZUORENYUANZAISHEBEIYUNXINGSHI(YOUQISHIYANCHUBUJINGQIEHUANSHI),GUANZHUBIANZUNEIDUOGESHEBEIDEYUNXINGQINGKUANG。ZHIZHIGANBIAOZHONGZAIMEIGESHEBEIBEIZHULANZHONGYINGJINXINGBIANZUTISHI,TONGSHIZAIBIANZUXIANGBIAOZHONGYINGZAICIZHUNQUEXIEMINGBIANZUSUOYONGDESHEBEI。

2.4同时运行CUE的数量限制

广东麻将ZAIYANCHUZHONG,YOUQISHIZAIMUJIANBUJINGQIEHUANSHI,WEILEJIANSHAOBUJINGQIEHUANDESHIJIAN,JINGCHANGHUICHUXIANDUOTIAOCUETONGSHIYUNXINGDEQINGKUANG,ZAIGEJUYUANYANCHUZHONGZUIDUOCHUXIANGUO6TIAOCUETONGBUYUNXINGDELIZI,CAOZUORENYUANYONGLIANGZHISHOUFENBIECAOKONGZHUCAOZUOMIANBANHEBEIFENCAOZUOMIANBANDECAOZUOTIAO。

CAIQUCIZHONGFANGSHI,HUIDAILAIYIXILIEWENTI:DIYI,YUNDONGDESHEBEISHULIANGDUO,SHEBEICHUXIANWENTISHIXIANCHANGHECAOZUORENYUANBURONGYISHIBIE;DIER,SHEBEICHUXIANGUZHANGSHI,CAOZUORENYUANDEKONGZHIMIANBANSHANGMEIYOUYINGJIDECAOZUOTIAO;DISAN,XIANCHANGRUOCHUXIANWENTI,GONGZUORENYUANHUIGENJUQINGKUANGXUYAOHANJITING,SHICAOZUORENYUANHENNANPANDUANSHINATIAOCUEXUYAOTINGZHI,ZHIJIEDAOZHIQUANBUCUETINGZHI。RUGUOCISHIBUJINGFASHENGGUACENG、DUANSHENGDENGQINGKUANGHUIDAILAIWUTAIERCIANQUANSHIGU。WEILEBIMIANCHUXIANSHANGSHUQINGKUANG,ZAICHUXIANXUYAOTONGSHIYUNXINGDECUECHAOGUO3TIAOSHI,JIUANPAILIANGGECAOZUORENYUANFENBIEZAIZHUKONGZHIXITONGSHANGGONGZUO,LIANGGECAOZUORENYUANYOUMINGQUEFENGONG,BAOZHENGMEIRENYUNXINGCUEDETIAOSHUBUCHAOGUO3TIAO。ZHEIYANGJIUBIMIANCHONGTU,JIANGDIBUJINGQIEHUANSHIDEANQUANFENGXIAN。

2.5设备的运动逻辑

广东麻将ZAIWUTAIJIXIECANYUYANCHUZHONG,WUTAIJIXIEDEYUNDONGLUOJIYEHUIJIWUTAIANQUANDAILAIYINGXIANG。YOUQISHIZAIFUZADEWUTAIDONGZUOZHONG,HUISHEJITAISHANG、TAIXIADUOGESHEBEITONGSHIYUNXING,TONGSHIXUYAODUOGEWEIZHIDEGONGZUORENYUANXIANGHUPEIHEFAMINGLING,CISHIXUYAOKAOLVWUTAIJIXIEDEYUNDONGLUOJI。

3“人为因素”对舞台安全的影响

3.1操作人员的操作规范性问题

广东麻将CAOZUORENYUANZAIKONGZHITAISHANGJINXINGCAOZUOSHI,YINGJINKENENGDIJIANSHAOSHOUQIAOSHURUDONGZUO。ZAISHOUQIAOSHURUSHI,YOUYUSHEBEIANNIUDEYUANYINHUOCAOZUORENYUANDEZISHENTEDIAN,JINGCHANGHUIDAOZHIQIAOJIBUDAOWEIHUOQIAOJICUOWU,ZAIYUNXINGZHONGRUGUOFAXIANBUJISHIHUIDAILAIWUTAIANQUANYINHUAN。CAOZUORENYUANSHOUQIAODONGZUOJINGCHANGCHUXIANWENTIDEQINGKUANGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN。

输入设备号错误:目前歌剧院的设备号位数并不统一,有一位数、两位数和三位数三种。其中假台口侧片及上片设备号为一位数,灯光桥、灯光吊笼水平和升降的设备号均为两位数,其他设备如吊杆、单点吊、升降台、车台和补偿台等设备号均为三位数。在操作时需要操作人员进行设备号输入,在高强度紧张工作和长时间工作时,会出现输入设备号漏位或错误的情况,导致其他设备误动作,若发现不及时会造成舞台安全事故。从使用者角度,应该认真、谨慎,避免发生误操作;但从设计者角度,应对设备号位数进行统一,避免此种错误发生的可能性。

输入舞台设备位置错误:在舞台工作中尤其是装台、拆台和技术调整过程中,需要多次临时运行设备,设备的运动方向、目标位和速度等参数会根据现场的实际情况进行设定。这时,就需要操作人员把相应参数输入控制系统中,而出现敲击错误导致设备错误运行就可能发生舞台安全事故。因此,现场的工作人员必须仔细关注设备运行状态,操作人员在运行设备前应再次确认。为了减少出现敲击输入错误和敲击的次数,歌剧院目前多采取的是使用标记位,以减少发生错误的可能性。

3.2人员职责分工与协同配合问题

机械专业人员内部分工:广东麻将在歌剧院,舞台机械的工作面一般分为台上操控和舞台面现场,具体可分为控制室、上场口和下场口三个地点。对于复杂的剧目,各个区域的工作人员相互配合做到无缝衔接。上场口前区的工作人员主要负责舞台机械的现场指挥,负责所有舞台机械的调度及演出中的应急指挥,其他工作区域的工作人员负责本区域的人员和设备安全。歌剧院的舞台面积大,为全方位、无死角的观察要求带来了很大的难度。因此,实际工作中只能依靠各个岗位的工作人员利用对讲机进行相互沟通。在正常情况下如何保证口令顺利传达、在紧急情况下如何保证现场情况及时反馈以及在所有情况下时刻保证对讲信道畅通,需要团队的默契工作,也需要科学、细致、可行的现场人员分工定责,还需要针对剧目特点制定相应的紧急预案,从而保证各类人员均能及时有效地传达口令和反馈现场情况,有效应对演出中各种突发情况。

跨专业人员协同配合与沟通:舞台安全还有来自舞美设计、布景制作、布景安装、布景切换和演员调度等多方面带来的影响:布景的厚度是否考虑了吊杆的间距、布景的吊挂重心是否测量准确并确保吊挂竖直、布景或灯具载荷在吊杆上分布是否合理、布景高度和舞台机械布置是否冲突、演员上场和下场是否和布景切换过程冲突等。此种情况下,需要舞台机械专业与舞美设计、舞美技术管理、导演和舞台监督之间相互协调,起到连接各专业的桥梁纽带作用,齐心合力、紧密配合,最大限度地将舞台安全隐患排除在剧目制作初期,确保舞台工作的安全底线。

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